EXTRACELLULAR VESICLES: IMMUNE RESPONSES AND COAGULATION

Extracellular vesicles have been receiving a lot of attention in recent years with researchers looking to understand more about how they work. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are minute vesicles that play an essential role in cells communication. They carry cargo in the form of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids from the donor to the acceptor or the target cell. They are released under different conditions including the pathologic and physiologic conditions with varying effects on target cells. Researchers believe that EVs play a significant role in liver diseases. Unfortunately, despite the much efforts to understand the cell interactions, most people do not understand them yet, but you can access information about them safely using VPN forwarding routes.

The effects of EVs on the immune system

The EVs are believed to play diverse roles in alcoholic liver disease, cholangiopathies, viral hepatitis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, and hepatobiliary malignancies. Researchers think that altering EV composition can reflect the underlying disease condition. The researchers also purpose that circulating the EVs can also help in the diagnosis and prognostics of the conditions. Studies have shown that EV release is increased in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis models and lipotoxicity models. In the fatty acid models, the EVs interacted through the surface cargo protein, the vanin-1.

When using L-amino acid defined model, scientists found an increase in serum EVs. The scientists noticed an increase in liver-derived EVs and a correlation with fibrosis, apoptosis, and neoangiogenesis. Studies on alcoholic hepatitis have found that EVs is the mechanism by which the hepatocytes that are injured by alcohol can communicate and stimulate the immune response. In viral hepatitis, scientists found that the pathways of EVs can be used to deliver therapeutic benefits to people suffering from chronic hepatitis B and C.

EVs and the coagulation system

Blood coagulation plays a critical role in the complement system. The activation of the complement system involves the serene protease thrombin and the coagulation molecule. Although the release of EVs is proposed to benefit the cell, it can also pose a danger to the environment. Scientists argue that coagulation activation in the blood can cause the formation of thrombus. Coagulation in the blood can also be triggered by the EVs interaction with neutrophils, thrombocytes, and macrophages. Studies have shown that complement can promote and deter the activation of EV shedding, which plays a critical role in regulating the complement activity as well as modulate both the adaptive and innate immune responses.

Conclusion

In addition to promoting immune responses and blood coagulation, the EVs also play other roles such as cellular homeostasis, transfer of genetic information, and specificity and stability. To attain their objectives, the EVs interact in various ways including the interaction with the complement system, complement regulators, and C5aR1 shedding. Although studies are still ongoing, there is enough evidence to show the contribution of EVs in various diseases like oncologic diseases, inflammatory diseases, and neurodegenerative disorders.